یادگیری زبان های دیگر بهتر است حروف و واژگان آن زبان را به شیوه صحیح
ادا کرده و تلاش کنید مانند افراد بومی آن زبان، صحبت کنید زیرا در برخی
موارد تفاوتهای آوایی در بیان یک واژه تغییر معنایی ایجاد کرده و ممکن است
معنی کاملاً متناقضی را القا کند. هرچند چگونگی تلفظ یک واژه که از واجها
و هجا تشکیل شده ممکن است تحت تاثیر عواملی مانند سن و سال، طبقه اجتماعی،
قومیت، سواد، جنسیت و مخاطب متفاوت باشد ولی برخی موارد مانند چگونگی حرکت
ماهیچه های دهان هنگام تلفظ، به عنوان موارد عمومی در تلفظ یک لغت در نظر
گرفته می شوند.
در دوره آموزشی Perfecting Your English Pronunciation سوزان کامرون (Susan Cameron) به عنوان یکی از بهترین متخصصین و مشاورین در زمینه چگونگی تلفظ و ادای لهجه صحیح انگلیسی، با تمرکز بر نحوه ی حرکت عضلات درگیر در بیان هر حرف، شما را با تلفظ صحیح لغات در زبان انگلیسی آشنا می کند.
– فایل های ویدیویی برای نمایش تصویری نحوه حرکت صحیح دهان و زبان هنگا ادای حروف مختلف
– فایل های صوتی به منظور آشنا کردن گوش با تلفظ صحیح
– فایل پی دی اف حاوی نمایش فونتیک ها و کلمات هم آوا
– و …
در هنگام تلفظ انگلیسی، تمرکز خود را با تمرکز متخصصان متخصص در منطقه کاهش دهید
One of the top priorities of learners of English around the world is to improve their fluency, by which they usually mean how quickly and/ or “smoothly” they can speak the language, including avoiding pauses. Unfortunately, fluency is one of the most difficult things to improve, particularly without living in an English-speaking country and if you are trying to improve this skills outside class. This article gives over 50 tips that should help learners to speak more fluently, including many things people can do on their own outside the classroom. The advice is divided into things to do while speaking, (just) before speaking, and when trying to “study speaking” to improve your skills. These tips are mainly for language learners themselves, but the suggestions should also be useful for teachers who want to give students advice or bring more development of fluency into their classes.
1. Think aloud
If you are thinking “That’s a difficult question”, “I’ve never really thought about that before”, “I’m not sure that I could even explain in my own language” or “I really don’t know what my answer to that question is”, then that is exactly what you should say. Not only does following this tip fill silence, but you’ll often find that by the time you’ve finished saying that initial thought you’ve actually thought of at least some way of answering the question. Similar things that pop into people’s heads and should probably then pop straight out of their mouths include “I was following the question up until…”, “I don’t really know where to start” and “What part of the question should I answer first?”
2. Start speaking, then think about what you are going to say
This is related to thinking aloud above and to learning sentence starters, mentioned below. Phrases which can start lots of sentences and are long enough to give you thinking time include “In my limited experience,…”, “I have generally found that,…”, “From my point of view,…”, “I don’t have any strong views about this one way or the other, but…”, “Off the top of my head,…”, “My initial answer would be…” and “The first thing that springs to mind is…”
3. Fill silence
This is related to the two things above but is a much easier thing to keep in mind – fill all silence with something or the other, even it is just sounds like “um” and “err”, extending some words while you think of others (“It was kiiiiiiind of aaaaa…”), echoing back the question or statement that you are responding to, or commenting on it before you make your own contribution (“That’s a difficult/ an unusual/ an interesting question”, etc).
4. Send the turn back
This is really only an emergency measure that could interfere with developing your fluency if you use it too much, but one way of avoiding uncomfortable silences is to ask something to the other person to give yourself time to think of what you want to say. The most natural way of doing this is to check the meaning of their question or previous statement with questions like “I’m not sure what… means”. This can be done fairly naturally even if you do understand what they want from you if you use questions to double check like “Do you mean…(or…)?”, “Are you asking me…?”, “Just to double check,…” and “So, if I understand you correctly you want to know…” As long as you don’t use it too much, you can also get people to answer their question before you have to, with questions “Can you give me an example of what you mean?” and “How would you answer that question?” There are also a few common answers that naturally send the turn straight back like “Doesn’t everyone?” and “Do you really need to ask?”
5. Use words from your language, then explain them
A lot of people get stuck when they think of a word in their own language which they can’t (quickly) translate into English. The easiest way around this is to mention the word in your own language and then explain it using phrases like “I don’t know how to say it in English but in my language we say ‘….’, which means something like…” and “There is an expression in my language ‘…’ which is something like…”
6. Use vague languageNative speakers often give themselves thinking time by saying things like “something like”, “or something like that”, “I suppose”, etc, even when in fact they are fairly or very sure about what they are saying. Other useful phrases to do this with include “I guess”, “more or less”, “You could say”, “I’d probably say” and “or so I’d imagine”. You can also use vague language like “thing” and “stuff” when you could get stuck on a word that you don’t understand, and there are more colourful versions of these like “thingy”, “thingamabob”, “thingamajig” and “whatsit”. You can also do the same for people’s names with phrases like “Whatshisname”, “that guy” and “you know the guy
The Fasting of Ramadan: A Time for Thought, Action, and Change!
12 Reasons To Fast!
1. Fasting is an institution for the improvement of moral and spiritual character of human being. The purpose of the fast is to help develop self-restraint, self-purification, God-consciousness, compassion, the spirit of caring and sharing, the love of humanity and the love of God. Fasting is a universal custom and is advocated by all the religions of the world, with more restrictions in some than in others. The Islamic Fast, as opposed to mere starvation or self-denial, is an act of worship and obedience to God, thanksgiving, forgiveness, spiritual training, and self-examination.
2. Ramadan gives us a break and provides us with a rare opportunity to think about our own selves, our future, and our families. It is a time to give our selves a mental break and to temporarily forget about the hundreds of worries and stresses we are constantly bombarded with. In hectic times, such as ours, and in places like the West, this valuable time to think about our lives, on individual basis, is a luxury and is desperately needed! It is a unique month of self-analysis, and of taking stock of one's moral and spiritual 'assets and liabilities'.
3. Fasting indoctrinates us in patience, unselfishness, and gratitude. When we fast we feel the pains of deprivation and hunger, and learn how to endure it patiently. The meaning of this powerful experience in a social and humanitarian context is that we are much quicker than anybody else in sympathizing with the oppressed and needy around the world, and responding to their needs. "It is the month to visit the poor, the sick, and the needy to share their sorrows. It is the month where the food, sustenance and the earnings of a believing Muslim increases and they are blessed," says the Final Prophet of God, Muhammad (peace be upon him), a man who was known for his noble humanitarian causes, for social justice, and for being the first to respond to other's needs, despite the fact that he himself lived a very simple and humble life. It is only during such a trying time as Ramadan that we can reflect on the condition of those in this world who may not be as fortunate as us.
4. Fasting in Ramadan enables us to master the art of mature adaptability and Time-Management. We can easily understand this point when we realize that fasting makes people change the entire course of their daily life. When they make the change, they naturally adapt themselves to a new system and schedule, and move along to satisfy the rules. This, in the long run, develops in them a wise sense of adaptability and self-created power to overcome the unpredictable hardships of life! A person who values constructive adaptability, time-management, and courage will appreciate the effects of Fasting in this respect as well.
5. It cultivates in us the principle of sincere Love, because when we observe Fasting, we do it out of deep love for God. And a person, who loves God, truly is a person who knows what love is and why everyone on this Earth should be loved and treated justly, for the sake of God.
6. Fasting elevates the human spirit and increases our awareness of God. It strengthens our will-power as we learn to rise above our lower desires. The institution of fasting is both unique and a shared experience in human history. From the very beginning of time, humans have struggled to master their physical and psychological selves: their bodies and their emotions. Hunger is one the most powerful urges that we experience. Many, through over- or under-eating or consumption of unhealthy foods, abuse this urge. Thus, when a person purposefully denies something to their own self that it craves, they are elevating their mind above their body, and their reason and will above their carnal passions. "A fasting person empties his stomach of all the material things: to fill his soul with peace and blessings, to fill his heart with love and sympathy, to fill his spirit with piety and Faith, to fill his mind with wisdom and resolution," says H. Abdalati in Islam in Focus. The person who can rule their desires and make them work, as they like, has attained true moral excellence.
7. With the clarity of mind and absence of distractions, also comes a greater focus. As students, the period of fasting, especially early during the day, serves as a tool to focus our minds on our academics. In the month of Ramadan, many Muslims try to avoid watching TV, listening to music, and some other leisure activities, which spares them more time and energy to be spent on more productive activities such as academics, intense study of Islam, voluntary prayers, social and humanitarian causes, and a quality time with the family, to name a few. It is a reminder of our duty to God, our purpose and higher values in life, as God Himself describes the purpose of fasting as follows, "O you who Believe! Fasting has been prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may develop consciousness of God" (Quran 2:183).
8. Fasting has numerous, scientifically proven, benefits for our physical health and mental well-being. The time, length and nature of the Islamic Fast all contribute to its overall positive effect. One of the medical benefits is a much-needed rest to the digestive system. The reduced food intake during the day allows the body to concentrate on getting rid of harmful dietary toxins accumulated as natural by-products of food digestion throughout the year. The length of the Islamic Fast itself (around 12-14 hours) is in sync with the 'transit time' of food from the mouth to the colon of the large intestine, ensuring that no stimulus reaches the stomach or digestive system while it remains in homeostasis. Therefore, for the vast majority of healthy individuals fasting poses no medical risks but in fact provides many health benefits, such as: an increase in serum Magnesium, essential for cardio-vascular health and prevention of heart complications; improvement in the quality and depth of sleep; improvement in memory and slower skin aging over time; increased production of growth hormone, etc. Also, as a general note, it has been observed that underfed animals live longer than their heavily fed counterparts and suffer fewer illnesses during their lives.
9. The month of Ramadan provides us with a sort of "Boot camp." It is a month of intense moral training. Since we know that Fasting is a special duty prescribed by God, we learn that any sins may spoil our record of fasting with God, so we go through great lengths making sure we are on our best behavior. Many people who experience fasting in this month, feel the impact that this intense training has on their habits, and realize the power of this transformative tool designed to make us better human beings- the ultimate goal of any spiritual exercise. The entire Ramadan atmosphere provides the driving force for this positive change.
10. It makes us realize the reality of life and death. Fasting makes us realize how dependant our lives are on things that we often take for granted, such as food and water. It makes us think about our dependence on God and God's mercy and justice. Moreover, it reminds us of the life after death, which itself has a great impact on our character and our world-view.
11. Ramadan is a blessed month for a special reason: It is actually the month in which God first revealed His final message and guidance for mankind to our beloved Prophet Muhammad. This message has been perfectly preserved both orally and textually in the form of a Book, called the Qur'an (The Reading/Recital). Therefore, Muslims try to do an intense study of the Quran in this month especially, and evaluate their lives according to the standards and guidance contained in it.
12. After the month of Ramadan is over, Muslims celebrate one of the two most important holidays in the Islamic year: EID-UL-FITR, or the Festival of the Fast Breaking. It is a day to thank God for the blessing and training that He provides us with throughout the month of Ramadan. EID-UL-FITR is marked by praying in a huge congregation at an Islamic center or mosque, and by giving a small donation to the poor in the community. The adults give the donation on behalf of their children as well. Dinner parties, family outings, fairs, carnivals, and great joyous celebrations follow the prayer and charity.
Pronunciation can be improved by focusing on the right words. Knowing the difference between content words and function words is the first step. Remember that we stress content words in English as they provide the words that are most important to understanding a sentence. In other words, function words like the prepositions 'at', 'from' or 'to are not stressed, whereas content words such as the nouns 'city' or 'investment' and main verbs like 'study' or 'develop' are stressed because they are key to understanding
Step 1: Find the Focus Word
Once you are familiar with using content words to help with stress and intonation, it's time to take it to the next level by choosing a focus word. The focus word (or words in some cases) is the most important word in a sentence. For example
Why didn't you telephone?! I waited all day!
In these two sentences the word 'telephone' is the central focus. It's the key to understanding both sentences. Someone might answer this question by saying
I didn't telephone because I was so busy
In this case, 'busy' would be the focus word as it provides the main explanation for someone being late
When saying the focus word, it's common to stress this word more than the other content words. This may include raising the voice, or speaking the word louder to add emphasis
Step 2: Change Focus Words to Move the Conversation Along
Focus words may change as you move through a conversation. It's common to choose focus words that provide the next topic for discussion. Take a look at this short conversation, noticed how the focus word (marked in bold) changes to move the conversation forward
Bob: We're flying to Las Vegas next week
Alice: Why are you going there
Bob: I'm going to win a fortune
Alice: You need to get real. Nobody wins a fortune in Las Vegas
Bob: That's not true. Jack won a fortune there last year
Alice: No, Jack got married. He didn't win a fortune
Bob: That's what I call winning a fortune. I don't need to gamble to win a fortune
Alice: Looking for love in Las Vegas is definitely not the answer
Bob: OK. What is the answer in your opinion
Alice: I think you need to start dating girls from here
Bob: Don't get me started on girls from here. They're all out of my league
Alice: Come on Bob, you're a nice guy. You will find someone
Bob: I hope so
Stressing these key words helps change the topic from a vacation in Las Vegas, to finding someone to marry, to solving Bob's love life issues.
Practice: Choose the Focus Word
Now it's up to you to choose the focus word. Choose the focus word for each sentence or group of short sentences. Next, practice speaking these sentences while making sure to emphasize the stress word more.
- What do you want to do this afternoon? I'm bored
- Why didn't you tell me she had a birthday
- I'm hungry. Let's get some lunch
- Nobody's here. Where has everyone gone
- I think Tom should buy lunch. I bought lunch last week
- Are you going to finish work or waste time
- You always complain about work. I think you need to stop
- Let's get Italian food. I'm tired of Chinese food
- The students are getting horrible grades. What's wrong
- Our class is going to have a test on Friday. Make sure you prepare
You don't have to pay for me. Let's go dutch today.
مجبور نیستی پولی به من بدی ، امروز هرکی دُنگ خودشو میده !
I have nothing to do. I'm bored to death.
کاری ندارم انجام بدم . خیلی کسل هستم .
bored to death = extremely bored
خیلی خسته کننده و کسل
You've got to be kidding me. I'm 30 years old!
داری باهام شوخی میکنی ! من سی سالمه !
I'm sick and tired of eating the same thing for lunch everyday.
هرروز ناهار یه چیز بخورم حالم بد میشه.
Let's call it a day. I'm too tired to continue working.
برای انجام بقیه کار خیلی خستم ، بیا کارو تعطیل کنیم.
call it a day = to decide or agree to stop doing sth,
Will you please stop doing that? It's getting on my nerves.
میشه اون کارو انجام ندید ؟ داره عصبیم میکنه !
I should be more active and less of a couch potato.
باید کمتر جلوی تلویزیون لم بدم و فعال تر باشم.
couch potato = a person who spends a lot of time sitting and watching TV.
You read my mind. That's exactly what I was thinking too.
فکرمو خوندی ! این دقیقا همون چیزی بود که داشتم بهش فکر میکردم.
What a gloomy day. It makes me feel blue.
چه روز غم انگیزی . منو دلگیرو افسرده میکنه.
I got into a small accident. It was just a fender-bender.
یه تصادف کوچیک ماشین داشتم ، یه تصادف جزعی بود.
There's nothing to be scared of. Don't be a chicken.
ترسو نباش.چیزی برای ترسیدن نیست.
Make up your mind, we don't have much time.
زمان زیادی نداریم ، تصمیمتو بگیر.
make up one's mind = Make a decision; decide
I actually prefer going dutch because I don't want to feel in debt to anyone.
درواقع ترجیح میدم دنگی حساب کنیم ، نمیخوام حس کنم به کسی بدهکارم.