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  • تاریخ ارسال : 1393/09/3, 18:52
FREUD, Sigmund
 
Born: May 6, 1856, in Frieberg, Moravia (now Príbor, Czech Republic
 
Died: September 23, 1939, in London, England
 
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 in what is now the Czech Republic. After moving a couple of times, his family
settled in Austria where he lived for most of his life
 
His initial interest lay in the field of law, but he was inspired by the discoveries of Goethe and decided to study natural
sciences at the University of Vienna. He found neurological research so interesting that he ignored other courses and
it took him three extra years to complete his medical degree which he eventually received in 1881
 
He began developing his theories of psychoanalysis when he worked with Josef Breuer from 1880 to 1882 By
working with patients like Bertha Pappenheim, they found that when patients talked about whatever came into their
minds their symptoms of hysteria disappeared. This was later dubbed free association
 
After many arguments with his parents, he married Martha Bernays in 1886. In that same year he established a
private practice, but his unorthodox methods brought criticism from the medical community
 
Nonetheless he continued to develop his theories and in 1896 he coined the term psychoanalysis to describe his
methodology. He used this term to describe his technique of uncovering repressed childhood traumas. He believed
that the symptoms of hysteria were caused by pent-up emotional energy from long remembered traumatic
experiences
 
Freud's emphasis on dreams stemmed from belief that the unconscious mind reveals details about these traumas
He even analyzed many of his own dreams. This dream analysis led him to his most famous theory - the Oedipus
complex - a theory which says a child has an erotic attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and a resentment of
the other parent.
 
His concepts of the Oedipus complex, the death wish and penis envy have been used so often in art and literature
that many people are aware of Freud's work despite never having read any of his work. Some would say his work
has even been degraded by popular literature
 
Despite being appointed a full professor at the University of Vienna in 1902, his work was still not well received and
he worked in isolation. Finally in 1906 he began to attract followers which culminated in 1910 with the formation of the
International Psychoanalytic Association.
 
After World War I his focus shifted and he concentrated on applying his ideas to the interpretation of religion
mythology, art, and literature
 
In 1923 he was diagnosed with jaw cancer and he continued to pursue philosophy despite the pain of the disease
He was later forced to flee Austria due to the anti-Semitism that followed the German occupation. He relocated in
England with his family where he died one year later, in 1939



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